Important Things of Premenstrual Syndrome Risk Factors

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What is Premenstrual syndrome?  (PMS)

        Premenstrual syndrome or PMS  is a combination of symptoms that many women get about a week or 2 before their period. Most women say they get some premenstrual symptoms, such as headaches, bloating, and moodiness. For many women, these symptoms may be so severe that they miss work or school, but other women are not bothered by milder symptoms.

PMS is a combination of emotional and physical symptoms that women get after ovulation and before the start of their menstrual period. PMS happens in the days after ovulation because progesterone and estrogen levels begin falling dramatically if you are not pregnant. PMS symptoms dsiapear within several days after a woman’s period starts as hormone levels begin rising again.

Many women get their periods without any signs of PMS or only very mild symptoms. For others, PMS symptoms may be so severe that it makes it hard to do everyday activities like go to work or school. Severe PMS symptoms may be a sign of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. PMS goes away when you no longer get a period, such as after menopause. After pregnancy, PMS might come back, but you might have different PMS symptoms.

Premenstrual Syndrome Risk Factor
Diet
A diet high in fat is associated with worse PMS symptoms. There is also evidence that women with PMDD have an increased desire for high-fat and high-calorie foods during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase. Another survey found that consumption of foods and beverages high in sugar was associated with PMS.

Obesity
Increasing body mass index or BMI is associated with PMS. a BMI > 27.5 conferred a significantly higher risk of PMS than a BMI < 20. Higher BMI was significantly associated with symptoms of backache, swelling of extremities, and abdominal cramping (Bertone-Johnson 2010). A survey of 874 women found that those who were obese had a 2.8-fold higher risk of PMS (Masho 2005). Higher BMI has also been associated with PMDD (Yen 2010).

Psychological Risk Factors
Stress, traumatic,or having post-traumatic stress disorder increases a woman’s odds of developing PMDD. There is also evidence that women who perceive discrimination during their lifetimes, including gender and race discrimination, are more likely to experience PMDD (Pilver, Desai 2011). Women with PMS were more than three times as likely to report significant trauma in childhood compared with those without PMS.
It is important to note that women with illnesses, psychiatric may experience exacerbation of their condition during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle.

Smoking and Alcohol Consumption
Women who smoke had a more than two-fold higher risk of developing PMS, while those who began smoking before age 15 had a greater than 2.5-fold risk, compared with women who never smoked. Former smokers who smoked 25 or more cigarettes per day had a 1.8-fold higher risk of developing PMS relative to women who never smoked. Smoking more cigarettes over a longer period of time also increased PMS risk.

A women with Premenstrual syndrome drank significantly more servings of alcohol per week, both pre- and postmenstrually, than did those without PMS. Women who had ten or more alcoholic drinks per week in their postmenstrual phase were significantly more likely to have moderate to severe PMS. MS.

Lifestyle Risk Factors
Some women with PMDD have a history of significant stress exposure, such as a history of childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. Stress can also trigger symptoms or make them worse. The correlation between worsening PMDD symptoms  and stress is currently an area of active investigation.  There are relationship between ALLO and the stress response in women with PMDD. ALLO typically increases at times of acute stress and has a calming and sedative effect. Experimental studies suggest the ALLO response to acute stress is decreased when exposed to stress.
Certainly, the possibility of a connection between your stress response and PMDD supports the common sense first-line treatment interventions for PMDD, including lifestyle modifications and stress reduction.

        There is some evidence that the onset and course of premenstrual syndrome is related to stress; however, few studies have explored the role of traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as risk factors for the development of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). 

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